Powdery and downy mildews are two common pathogens that impact plant and crop health. Powdery mildew is a fungus that results in distinct white spots on plant leaves and stems. It’s common among many plants and crops including legumes, cucurbits, apples, pears, onions, maple trees, and grapes. It requires low humidity with warm temperatures, making greenhouses a great environment to infect. On the other hand, downy mildew is a fungus-like parasite that is actually more closely related to algae. It also results in spots which are distinct in that they are more angular, and often yellow or gray in color. In grapes, downy mildew spots are yellow and oily-looking. In mint and basil, downy mildew spots are darker brown or black. Downy mildew is most common in spring and fall with cool nights and high humidity, warm days.

With both mildews, they survive by stealing nutrients from plants which can stress, weaken and even kill the plant. They can also make plants vulnerable to other pathogens and insect damage. Similarly, they can spread via insects like aphids, wind, rain, runoff, irrigation, and contact with infected plants.

Downy mildew is a zoospore, making it capable of “swimming” through water to infect one plant to the next. Spots on leaves can grow larger and denser until they even impact photosynthesis. This can lead to defoliation, sunburn, soft rots, plant death, and can affect the level of sugars that develop in fruit and vegetables and therefore their flavor. Both also have unique varieties that affect particular crops, for example the variety of powdery mildew that has infected squash cannot infect grapes. It is important to be aware of plant families though, as mildew that has attacked basil can be transferred to mint.

Despite their differences, their management techniques are similar. Because they need high humidity to proliferate, it’s best to avoid over-watering techniques, avoid fertilization during outbreaks, properly space plants particularly in greenhouses, and prune overcrowded areas particularly for trees and crops like grapes. Since downy mildew can overwinter, it is critical to dispose all infected plants. For cucurbits, there are some mildew-resistant crop strains. For grapes, berries will naturally protect themselves after 2-3 weeks of their development. However, certain fungicides like sterol inhibitors and strobilurins don’t completely kill mildew and others like difenoconazole are phytotoxic to grapes.

For grapes in particular, and any other affected plant or crop, there are environmentally friendly fungicides and algaecides that can contain both powdery and downy mildew. BioSafe PerCarb is a biofungicide based in sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate that should be applied every 7-10 days to field crops or within greenhouses. To maximize treatment efficiency, it is recommended to supplement with a foliar treatment such as Oxidate 2.0. These fungicides work together to provide increased stability, and again can be applied from seed to harvest via spray, soil drench, or pre-plant drip with a 0-hour re-entry interval and 0-day pre-harvest interval. They are also both EPA certified, OMRI approved, and biodegradable.

“Regenerative agriculture provides answers to the soil crisis, the food crisis, the health crisis, the climate crisis and the crisis of democracy.” — Dr. Vandana ShivaRegeneration International

Beginning almost two decades ago, a family-owned dairy farm belonging to Greg and Rachel Hart transitioned from conventional dairy farming to regenerative farming (Greenpeace New Zealand). Where typical farms maintain one or two animal species and a pasture of one or two crops for feed, the Harts maintain five animal species and twelve different crops for feed and other uses.

Large livestock like cattle graze an area first, followed by chickens which feed on remaining plants, spread manure as fertilizer, and pick out insects. Grazing areas alternate which allows for a layer of mulch to retain nutrients and protect against soil degradation and erosion. The Harts are free from using fertilizers or pesticides, cutting their costs dramatically. The Harts have also planted 105,000 trees in the past ten years for fruit, nuts, timber, and to regenerate native biodiversity. Their farm is now carbon-neutral with these trees off-setting their farm’s emissions. Additionally, the Harts built an “eco-lodge” where people can come to reconnect with nature, natural foods, and learn about regenerative agriculture.

Regenerative agriculture, sometimes called biodynamic farming or agroecology, is an increasingly popular practice among farmers, environmentalists, policymakers and international organizations worldwide; but what exactly is it? According to the Rodale Institute, regenerative agriculture includes several methods which must be practiced simultaneously. These methods include cover cropsmulchcompostcrop rotation, and conservation tillage (Rodale Institute). Further, regenerative agriculture rejects synthetic fertilizer and pesticide use and methods that disrupt soil life. The theory behind regenerative agriculture is to incorporate farming, recognized as a human intervention, into the natural ecosystem where various plants, insects, and animals interact. Unlike monoculture, this protects natural ecosystems and ensures the greatest environmental benefits while maintaining productive farms. Even more so than organic agriculture, which can still promote monoculture, regenerative agriculture benefits the farmer, the consumer, and the local ecology.

In general, primary environmental impacts of regenerative agriculture can include improved soil health, biomass and nutrient retention; improved root penetration and water infiltration; carbon sequestration; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; and prevention from soil erosion, degradation, pests and diseases. Secondary environmental impacts can include biodiversity conservation, land regeneration, reforestation, and mitigation from and adaptation to climate change impacts. Apart from the environmental impacts that the Harts observe, their farm also employs twice as many people as conventional dairy farms, therefore benefitting the local community and economy.

There are even standards in place similar to organic standards or Fair Trade Certified standards. Demeter International is an organization that reviews and certifies products or supply chains that appropriately use regenerative or “biodynamic” agriculture methods. Demeter International standards do not permit synthetic nitrogen or phosphoric pesticides or fertilizers, or antimicrobials. Through on-site visits they regulate the production, processing, storage, packaging, and labelling of food, cosmetics, and textiles across sectors including agriculture, aquaculture, and bee-keeping.

This closed-loop system provides an alternative to conventional farming, where each aspect of the farm is a necessary resource that produces necessary outputs. Taking the Hart’s farm as example, a single chicken can be used to spread fertilizer and reduce pests. Its eggs can feed the Hart family, with its eggshells contributing to compost. Demeter International asserts, “Biodynamic farmers return more to the soil than they remove in the process of cultivating crops and animals; the farm is considered as an organism in which plants, animals, and human beings are integrated together” (Demeter International). For more success stories, refer to these 24 case studies of regenerative agriculture in action!

Deforestation is an environmental issue impacting every continent in the world. It can be linked to various causes, with various impacts. In the U.S., Russia, and China, forestry and wildfires are the top drivers (Mongabay, 2020). But these losses are minute compared to the destruction caused by industrial and small-scale agriculture. In fact, agriculture is the primary driver for deforestation. Worse, it disproportionately impacts communities in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Agriculture as a driver is usually two-fold; most cleared land is used for cattle farming, for both pasture and planting feed crops (usually soy). Second to cattle ranching, agricultural drivers include crops grown in tropical climates like soy, palm, coffee and cocoa, and logging for paper and pulp products. The production of these commodities is often tied to larger social and environmental issues, such as land tenure rights particularly among indigenous people, soil degradation, water pollution, wildlife destruction, and fertilizer and pesticide use.

Soil degradation in tropical forests is even more detrimental than that which can occur in temperate forests. Because of their dry and wet seasons (as opposed to warm and cold), tropical forests are constantly recycling nitrogen. There is actually very minimal amounts of nitrogen stored in the soil. Then, when forests are cleared, nutrients are easily removed because of increased runoff or uptake in crops.

This creates a cycle where arable land within tropical climates are constantly at risk for becoming completely fallow. This then contributes to fertilizer reliance, which similarly flows into waterways through runoff, resulting in water pollution. Clearing forests also contributes to climate change, both through releasing carbon sequestered in trees, and by reducing the capacity of carbon sequestration captured by forests.

You may be thinking, what does this have to do with me, or maybe even what can I do? Well, there are of course many things that could prevent deforestation such as stronger government-level policies restricting corporations, adopting agroforestry techniques, and protecting indigenous land rights. But even as Americans, seemingly far-removed from the problem, there are steps we can take. The majority of commodities like soy (not grown for cattle feed), palm, coffee, and cocoa, are used in supply chains by corporations that we rely on here in the U.S.

So, we can be educated on how we might be contributing to deforestation by supporting certain brands. Oxfam International tracks the supply chains of the ten largest, global corporations including PepsiCo, Unilever, Coca-Cola, Danone, General Mills, Kellogg, Mars, Mondelez International, Nestlé, and Associated British Foods. “…Nestlé and Unilever are currently performing better than the other companies, having developed and published more policies aimed at tackling social and environmental risks within their supply chains” (Oxfam, 2019). Some other corporations make a point to be transparent in their supply chains, such as Starbucks and Estée Lauder. By making small changes, like reaching out to a local cattle farmer for beef, instead of purchasing from the mainstream giants, we can impact the demand for deforestation.



Whether you are a garden-enthusiast, commercial agriculturist, or somewhere in the middle, when it comes to producing any kind of healthy plant or crop you need to consider the bugs that they will attract. The relationship between “good” bugs, pests, and our plants goes beyond our control as cultivators. It is our job, however, to support this relationship and where appropriate exploit this relationship to the benefit of our produce. Bugs support healthy ecosystems, and we can attract the “good” ones to protect against the pesky ones.

Unlike chemical pesticides, using bugs to control pests protects against bioresistance and bioaccumulation. Even some environmentally-safe insecticides can harm the “good” bugs, particularly pollinators like bees, so it is always important to follow safety instructions. Some “good” bugs include ladybugs, spiders, praying mantis, aphid midges, tachinid flies, and braconid wasps.

They kill common pests such as aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, thrips, cabbage worms, and mosquitoes. Some of the plants that these “good” bugs prefer include dill, clover, amaranth, alfalfa, coriander, parsley, spearmint, yarrow, lemon balm, marigold, zinnias, statice, evening primrose, and dandelion.

Apart from these predatory “good” bugs, pollinators such as birds, bats, bees, butterflies, beetles, and small mammals also play a critical role in healthy ecosystems and productive green spaces. Between 75-95% of all plant need help from pollinators to successfully proliferate (Pollinators Partnership). And even more importantly, these bugs to it for free! Pollinators contribute $217 billion dollars to the global economy (Pollinators Partnership). Farmers in particular should note that dedicating a portion of farm fields to pollinator-preferred plants can increase overall productivity and yield in crops (Pollinators Partnership). To attract pollinators its best to plant their preferred plant in clumps rather than as individual plants. Depending on the pollinator, they can be attracted to various different flower colors, scents, and level of pollen. Some common favorites include aster, marigold, hellebore, and marigold. As a guide, pollinator.org provides detailed lists of pollinator-preferred plants based on climate and insect type.

When choosing which type of plant to attract the “good”, pest-eating bugs or pollinators, consider also their holistic uses. For example, marigold can attract both types of bugs and its pungent smell is a natural deterrent for certain pests and even larger mammals like rabbits and deer. Herbs like dill, coriander and spearmint work similarly, and can of course be used for culinary purposes. Perennials like yarrow, evening primrose, and asters need to be planted only once and their benefits will last throughout the years. Finally, certain flowers like statice, hellebore, and zinnias are popular cut-flowers with the potential to be used to decorate your home or sold to local florists in surplus. There are endless applications for these attractive plants, with great benefits for the environment and your garden or farm.

It’s no surprise that potatoes are one of the most widely produced and consumed crops globally. In 2018, 368 million tons of potatoes were harvested worldwide. The United States alone is the fifth largest producer, and fourth largest consumer, of potatoes. This staple crop is packed with potassium, fiber, calcium, magnesium, iron, Vitamin C and B6, antioxidants and prebiotics. Therefore, a critical aspect of potato farming is how to best store them following harvest.

Potatoes can be safely stored for 10-12 months, and are dependent on a number of factors including temperature, humidity, and light. For longer term storage, potatoes prefer temperatures near 39°F. The longer potatoes are stored, the more their starches break down. In temperatures below 39°F, starches begin to turn into sugars. For shorter term storage, between 45°F and 50°F is preferred.

Regardless, a dark and well-ventilated atmosphere is crucial. Apart from the natural decomposition and internal changes that potatoes may undergo during storage, factors like light are critical to monitor because potatoes have glycoalkaloids. Glycoalkaloids are naturally toxic compounds that potato plants produce to ward off pests in the field. These compounds develop more readily due to light exposure, physical damage, and over time. Thankfully, tuber flesh has the lowest percentage of glycoalkaloids, and these can be minimized with proper storage. In total, between 5-10% of potato crops are lost yearly during storage months.

Apart from proper storage practices, StorOx is an environmentally-safe bactericide/fungicide that increases shelf-life duration through minimizing spoilage. It can be used on potatoes post-harvest before and during storage to protect against bacterial ring rot, bacteria soft rot, early and late blight, fusarium tuber rot, and silver scurf. In order to do so, it can be applied via chemigation through a drip or sprinkler system. Based in hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid, it works within 60 seconds of contact to chemically break down bacteria, fungus, and mold. In trials it successfully reduced soft rot by 93%, late blight by 90%, Pythium leak by 93%, and pink rot by 95%. Despite its effectiveness, it is non-residual and biodegradable, with a 0-hour re-entry interval and 0-day post-harvest interval. Further, it is both EPA and OMRI approved.

Besides protecting potato crops in storage, StorOx can also be used as a sterilizer and disinfectant for numerous commercial, public, and private purposes. It is safe for use on many materials including stainless steel, glass, sealed wood, nylon, and PVC, to name a few. Further, it can be used in many contexts from sanitizing floors, tables and hardhats, to disinfecting harvest equipment, water filtration systems, dehumidifiers, and pasteurizers. In these applications, it can protect against E. coli, salmonella strands, and Lactobacillus malefermentans, among other bacteria and fungi. The StorOx specimen label contains precise instructions on how to properly manage bacteria and fungus in each of these applications. Clearly, this is an economical and environmentally-friendly option regardless of whether your needs are potato-related or not.

Mutually beneficial relationships exist all throughout nature, between birds and insects, insects and flowers, flowers and your favorite garden veggies. Many of your garden veggies are also engaged with mycorrhizal fungi, a healthy fungus that transfers nutrients. There are some companion plant celebrities, like mustard that grows in the vineyards of California, or asters and goldenrod that seem to always find each other in a wildflower field. Regardless, there are often deep-rooted causes and impacts of these relationships.

Mustard plants are rich in phosphorus, and when they are tilled under, they provide necessary phosphorus levels for wine grapes that need it. Mustard seeds are also quite hearty, and can survive in dormancy for as much as twenty years (Sonoma County Tourism, 2020). Mustard also happens to have strong root systems, which protects against soil erosion. And lastly, the glucosinolate which makes mustard spicy and odorous protects vineyards against destructive nematodes (Sonoma County Tourism, 2020).

Asters and goldenrod have a completely different relationship. Each flower attracts pollinators, but often very different pollinators, contributing to their mutual proliferation when they accompany each other in a wildflower field. They are also natural deterrents for deer, host significant pest predators like spiders, praying mantis, and assassin bugs, and fight against powdery mildew and fungal and bacterial leaf spot (Trees for the Future, 2020).

For the purpose of your garden or farm, identifying these relationships among different crops and exploiting them is a great way to both uphold a quasi-natural ecosystem and promote crop health, grade, and yield. Intercropping in general naturally protects against pests as they are more likely to be confused by the combination of plants. And, some plants are better than others at being natural pesticides such as alyssum, nasturtium, marigolds, salvia, “spider flower” or cleome, camomile, garlic and herbs (particularly chives, rosemary, and mint). Many of these contain biofumigants like mustard does, naturally occurring smells that deter pests. Others, like cleome and marigolds to some extent, also have fuzzy or spiky textured foliage that pests can’t stand. There are also countless vegetable companions including, but not limited to: lettuce and mint (mint repels lettuce-loving slugs), spinach and peas (peas provide much needed shade for spinach), cabbage and rosemary (rosemary repels the cabbage fly), tomatoes and marigolds (marigolds repel hornworms and nematodes), radishes and cucumber (radishes repel beetles and aphids), and members of the cucurbit family and flowering plants (flowers help pollinate cucurbits) (Trees for the Future, 2020).

Similarly, some plants can stunt another’s growth or even be poisonous. Some can even attract arch enemies, such as tomatoes which attract corn worms and corn which attracts tomato worms (Trees for the Future, 2020). And, on the other end of the spectrum, there are ways to negatively reverse the relationship that two plants have. A study conducted by Florida International University showed that surplus nitrogen and phosphoric fertilizers resulted in less “sharing” between plants and other plants, plants and animals, and plants and bacteria or fungus (FIU, 2015). This went on to negatively impact plant growth, disease, drought, and food security (FIU, 2015). Therefore, it is critical to keep in mind how intercropping can potentially impact crop health for the worse, and how non-organic practices can be detrimental to positive plant relationships.




If you felt this past winter had especially memorable weather, know that it wasn’t only in your town. This past winter was filled with weather irregularities, including the warmest temperatures ever recorded in parts of Puerto Rico and Hawaii, the coldest temperatures recorded in parts of Alaska since 1989, below average temperatures in the Rockies, above average snow in the Rockies, well below average snow in the Sierra Nevadas, moderate drought in a third of California, and above average flooding in the Southeast (NOAA, 2020). California noted the driest February on record (with California still experiencing drought in April), putting it at greater risk for wildfires this summer (Bloomberg, 2020). With these major weather pattern changes attributed to global climate change, it’s important to keep in mind how this impacts agriculture, and vice versa.

California leads as the primary state for agriculture production in dairy products and crops, and coming in second only to Texas in livestock. Almost all of the almonds, pistachios, walnuts, stone fruit, olives, and most of the avocadoes, grapes, lemons, lettuce, tomatoes, and melons, are grown in California. California is also plagued with wildfires, earthquakes, mudslides, and floods. In California, and every arable state in the U.S., climate change can result in deforestation, biodiversity loss, soil erosion, land degradation, desertification, soil salinization, and ocean acidification. Further, agriculture and climate change are circular processes, where climate change makes weather patterns less reliable creating more difficult farming conditions resulting in greater fertilizer use, land use changes, and risks for farmers and consumers.

Some of the most fascinating methods that can be used to protect cultivated lands and managed forests from pests are those that have developed through biological and evolutionary processes. Like all living things, insects have natural enemies from bacteria to toxic plants to other insects. It seems only logical to mobilize these natural enemies as biopesticides for protecting crops, fruit and nut trees, and ornamentals.
Azaguard is a completely natural insecticide that is based in azadirachtin, named from its source the Azadirachta indica or “Neem tree”. This insecticide contains over 100 limonoid compounds. Limonoids, common in citrus trees and the Neem tree, work as an insect growth disruptor deterring egg-laying and as an anti-feedant leading to insect starvation and death. (Limonoids are also responsible for the sour or bitter taste that citrus fruits offer!) The Azaguard insecticide is effective against destructive pests including termites and the particularly invasive southern armyworm. It is also effective against particular insects that are resistant to other commonly used biopesticides such as the Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria. While most effective when applied during the larval stage, it can be applied at any point during larval, pupal, or nymphal stages of insect development. It should be applied at least every 10 days, and is safe for greenhouse or field applications via drop irrigation, soil drench, fogging, or aerial applications. It is immediately effective, has a 0-day pre-harvest interval, and biodegrades in about 4 days after exposure to light or water.
Apart from using limonoids as a weapon, there are even more complex natural processes that won’t only deter insects but actually kill them. BioCeres WP is a mycoinsectide, meaning it is a microbial insecticide that infects insects with a living pathogen that ultimately causes insect death. In this particular case, Beauveria bassiana fungus is spread to insects including whiteflies, aphids, thrips, weevils, and cabbage maggots. Again, this pathogen is a completely natural enemy to the insect, which has been harnessed to control pests in agricultural settings. The BioCeres biological mycoinsecticide works by adhering to the insect’s outer skin, then penetrating their exoskeleton and infecting them with white muscardine disease. The insects then die within a matter of days. The symptoms of this disease are visible on insects, noted by a white foamy coat, although it is also important to note that this pathogenic process can also successfully kill insects before the symptoms are visibly apparent. Unlike other forms of pesticides, it is very unlikely for insects to develop a resistance to mysoinsecticides due to their natural relationship. BioCeres WP can be applied via soil drench or as a foliar spray every 5-7 days. It is effective during all stages of insect development, has a 4-hour re-entry interval and also has a 0-day pre-harvest interval. Both biopesticide solutions are OMRI and EPA approved, with the former also being Kosher. So next time you’re not sure where to turn to claim victory over the insects, look no further than their own natural-born enemies.

Phytophthora – which translates from Greek as “plant destroyer” – is one of the most common and destructive blights. It is difficult to manage with hundreds of Phytophthora species existing, each capable of destroying a host of different plants. Phytophthora blight can affect ferns, grasses, crops such as strawberries, curcurbits, tomatoes, potatoes, cocoa, onions, and soybeans, trees such as cedar, birch, dogwood, and citrus trees, and shrubs such as rhododendron and azaleas. In fact, it was Phytophthora infestans that caused the Irish potato famine in the 19th century.

Phytophthora is a water-mold made up of cellulose, therefore is behaves similar to a fungus but is actually more closely related to algae. Because of its preference for environments with excess water, it is most common in spring and fall, and in temperatures ranging from 59-82°F. In potatoes, phytophthora blight that happens later in the season can sometimes be accompanied by a virus making the damage as much as 125-times more detrimental (PotatoPro, 2019). It can be spread through wind-borne rain, runoff, irrigation, and through contaminated soil or equipment. Phytophthora can also overwinter and spread through plant debris. Phytophthora needs only a few hours (4-8) of standing water to take hold. It is also common for newly imported plants to infect others, particularly in greenhouses. Dependent on the plant variety, some symptoms of phytophthora blight include plant weakness, wilting, foliage discoloration, signs of drought-stress or other distress. Many plants also exhibit no symptoms. In trees and shrubs, younger trees are more vulnerable where it may take years for the infestation to kill older trees.

Because phytophthora blight is so proliferate, most management techniques include preparation such as ensuring proper drainage or mitigating damage through digging up infected soil and drying out roots. In trials with tomato seedlings, TerraClean 5.0, an environmentally-friendly fungicide/algaecide, has been found to reduce Phytophthora by 23-55%. It also reduced root-knot, where similar alternatives such as methyl bromide and Ridomil Gold reduced either Phytophthora or root-knot, but not both. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with Phytophthora in August, then the fungicide was applied via drip irrigation once every two weeks until November. Apart from receding the blight outbreak, tomato plant vigor and yield both increased. In a separate trial with strawberry plants, yield increased by 19%.

TerraClean 5.0 can be used to attack phytophthora blight during any plant stage. Composed of hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid, it kills pathogens, enhances nutrient uptake, and develops a healthier root zone. It can be applied via drip irrigation, drench, flood, and drip application. It is also EPA and OMRI approved as it has no mutational resistance and a 0-hour re-entry interval. While management techniques may work to battle phytophthora blight, it is also reassuring to know there are proactive solutions for the “plant destroyer” as well.

Have you recently noticed those pesky cankers typical of fire blight in your orchard? Fire blight is one of the most common diseases afflicting apples and pear orchards, with around 200 species being susceptible to its damage. Young trees are most vulnerable with complete loss possible in just one season. Even in more established trees, fire blight can kill blossoms, fruit, shoots, twigs and branches. Symptoms can be present in bark, leaves, flowers, and roots from pre-blossom through to blossom and onto fruition.

Fire blight is most adept to happen when trees are in flower, the weather is warm (70-95?), and in humid environments. At temperatures below 70? and higher than 95?, bacterial growth is still present, but grows at slower rates. As a general rule, fire blight is most likely to take root in three weeks following petal fall. This generally happens during May and June in North America. The fire blight bacteria is perpetuated by insects like bees and flies, and can also be transferred during wind-blown rain. Further, diseased cells can survive in plant tissue from one season to the next.

Now, taking this into consideration you may be wondering what your options are to attack this plight, particularly what organic-safe options are out there. Pruning is an option, but presents risks during warmer months where fire blight can actually proliferate from pruning. Fortunately, Enviroselects offers Oxidate 2.0 which can prevent, cure, and even rescue apple and pear orchards from fire blight. Its active ingredient is hydrogen peroxide, and this oxidizing fungicide kills bacteria, fungal pathogens and spores present in apple and pear trees. It can also be used for crops including beans, berries, nuts, potatoes, and herbs among others.

After six applications, more than 70% of fire blight bacteria or fungus was under control (BioSafe Systems, 2012). It begins to work on contact with apple and pear plants or trees. It can be applied every 5-10 days for preventative purposes, every 3-5 days for curative purposes, and depending on the crop variety even more frequently for rescue purposes. It can be applied on field crops or in greenhouses to seeds, growing plants, and mature fruiting trees.

Apart from its successes, Oxidate 2.0 also boasts approval from both the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) and the EPA. It’s safe for both growers and consumers with a 0-day pre-harvest interval, as well as a 0-hour restricted entry interval. With a 2-year shelf life, and no refrigeration necessary, it can also be safely used next season should any fire blight bacteria survive the winter. This product is available right on our website, with further information on the specific pathogens exterminated and related resources.